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BIBLE DICTIONARY
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES
B.C.SEQUENCE OF EVENTS IN THE DAYS OF THE EARLY PATRIARCHS
4000 Fall of Adam. (Those desiring calculated dates on these events may wish to consult published chronologies.)
Ministry of Enoch.
Ministry of Noah; the Flood.
Tower of Babel.
Ministry of Melchizedek.
Death of Noah (Gen. 9: 28).
Birth of Abram. In the days of Abram we meet with the names of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Amraphel, king of Shinar. Egypt was manifestly a powerful kingdom before and during the patriarchal times, but the early annals of Egypt as they have come down to us help us to few synchronisms that can be relied on.
Birth of Isaac.
Birth of Jacob.
Birth of Joseph.
Joseph sold into Egypt (Gen. 37: 2).
Joseph stands before Pharaoh (Gen. 41: 46).
Jacob and his family go down to Egypt.
Death of Jacob.
Death of Joseph.
Birth of Moses.
The Exodus when Moses was 80 years old.
Death (translation) of Moses.
Death of Joshua.
After the death of Joshua was the period of the Judges, of whom the first was Othniel and the last Samuel, but the arrangement and dates of the rest are very uncertain. The commencement of the Assyrian empire appears to have been somewhere in the period of the Judges, but much of the chronological data preserved in Assyrian tablets is of a fabulous character.

In this section the dates are ascertained with more accuracy, help being derived from synchronisms with profane history, which become more numerous with every succeeding century.

B.C.THE UNDIVIDED KINGDOMPERSONS AND EVENTS OF EXTERNAL HISTORY
1095 Commencement of Saul's reign. Samuel lives for a great part of Saul's reign. Nahash, king of Ammon. Tiglath-pilesar I, king of Assyria. Agag, king of Amalek. Achish, king of Gath.
1063 David anointed by Samuel.
1055 David king in Hebron.
1047 David king in Jerusalem. Nathan and Gad, prophets. Hiram, king of Tyre. Hadadezer, king of Zobah. Toi, king of Hamath. Hanun, son of Nahash, king of Ammon.
1015 Solomon made king. Death of David.
1012 Solomon begins to build the temple. Hiram, king of Tyre.
1004 Solomon begins to build his own house.
991 The whole buildings finished. Hada the Edomite is protected in Egypt.
Genubath, son of Hadad.
Rezon, king of Zobah.
Shishak, king of Egypt, shelters Jeroboam.
975 Death of Solomon. The ten tribes revolt from Rehoboam.

In the following table the first column of dates follows the books of Kings and Chronicles; the third column contains a revised chronology derived from inscriptions on Assyrian and other monuments. The kings of Judah are printed in heavy type, and the kings of Israel in capitals.

B.C.KINGS OF JUDAH AND ISRAELRev. Chr.INTERNAL HISTORYEXTERNAL HISTORYSYNCHRONISMS
975 Rehoboam Jeroboam I 953 Ahijah the Shilomite prophesies, also Shemaiah. Penuel build (1 Kgs. 12: 25).
Shishak, king of Egypt.


949 Shishak plun- ders Jerusalem.

957 Abijam 932


955 Asa 929


954 Nadab 927 Oden and Aza- riah prophesy. Asa's war with Zerah the Ethiopian.
953 Baasha 925 War of Israel against Judah. Hanani and Jehu prophesy.

930 Elah 901
Asa's alliance with Benhadad I.
929 Zimri 899


929 Omri (at war with Tibni) 897


925 Omri (victorious)
Benhadad I conquers Omri (1 Kgs. 20: 34).

918 Ahab 875 Samaria built (1 Kgs. 16: 24).
Ethbaal (Eitho- balus), king of Zidon.
914 Jehoshaphat 873 Elijah the Tishbite. Jericho rebuilt. Micaiah son of Imlah prophesies. Syrian invasion of Samaria (1 Kgs. 20: 34). Moab rebels against Israel. Mesha, king of Moab.
898 Ahaziah 853 Jahaziel prophesies (2 Chr. 20: 14). Eliezer of Mareshah prophesies (2 Chr. 20: 27).

897 Jehoram 851 Elisha prophesies. Obadiah prophesies. Battle of Ramoth-gilead. Hazael, king of Syria.
893 Joram 848


885 Ahaziah 844


884 Athaliah Jehu 843


878 Joash 837 Joash buys off Hazaels invasion (2 Kgs. 12: 18). Syrian victories over Israel (2 Kgs. 10: 32). Sardanapalus dies.
856 Jehoahaz
Joel prophesies.

842 Jehoash 798


841 Amaziah 797

Shalmaneser II.
826 Jeroboam II 790 Hosea prophesies. Jonah prophesies (2 Kgs. 14: 25). Amaziah subdues Edom (2 Kgs. 14: 7). Shalmaneser III.
811 Azariah or Uzziah 792 Amos prophesies.

773 Zechariah 749

First Olympiad.
772 Shallum 748


772 Menahem 748
There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15: 1-2, and 2 Kgs. 15: 30-32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah's name is now thought to have to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that prove correct, the commencement of Isaiah's prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham's regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured. Pul, king of Assyria (= Tiglath-pileser III?).
761 Pekahiah


759 Pekah

Rezin, king of Syria.
758 Jotham 740 Isaiah begins to prophesy. Rome founded.

Pekahiah (R.C.) 737
Era of Nabonassar, 747.

Pekah (R.C.) 735

742 Ahaz 734
Tiglath-pileser II, king of Assyria (747-734). So, king of Egypt.
730 Hoshea 733

726 Hezekiah 728
Shalmaneser IV, king of Assyria, 727.
721 End of the Northern kingdom 722 Micah prophesies. Sargon. Merodach- Baladan, king of Babylon, 722. Death of Sennacherib, 701. Esarhaddon. Median kingdom formed.
697 Manasseh 697
Psammetichus, king of Egypt, 670. Fall of No-Amon (Thebes), 660.
642 Amon 642 Nahum prophesies. Assurbanipal (667-626).
640 Josiah 640 Huldah the prophetess. Jeremiah begins to prophesy, 628. Zephaniah prophesies. Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt. Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, 625-604.
609 Jehoahaz 609 Obadiah prophesies. Fall of Ninevah, 606.
609 Jehoiakim 609 Daniel carried captive, 606. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, 604-561.
598 Jehoiachin 598 Habakkuk prophesies.
598 Zedekiah 598 Ezekiel prophesies.
587 Capture of Jerusalem 587


B.C.JEWISH HISTORYPROFANE HISTORY
561 Jehoiachin's captivity relaxed.
Evil-merodach, king of Babylon.
559
Commencement of the Persian Empire under Cyrus. Neriglissar, king of Babylon, 559-555.
555

Belshazzar co-regent with Nabonidus.
538
Union of Media and Persia under Cyrus. Fall of Babylon.
537 Decree of Cyrus for the return of the Jews.

536 Joshua, high priest.

529 Ahasuerus (Ezra 4: 6). =Cambyses, king of Persia, 529-521.
525

Egypt conqured by Cambyses. Birth of Aeschylus.
521 Artaxerxes (Ezra 4: 7). =Pseudo-Smerdis.
521 Darius I (Ezra 4: 5). =Darius Hystaspes.
520 The hindered temple building resumed. Haggai and Zechariah prophesy.
Sophocles born, 495.
490

Battle of Marathon.
486 Ahasuerus (Esther 1: 1). =Xerxes, 486-465. Egypt revolts from Persia for 2 years.
483 Joiakim, high priest.
Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis, 480.
465 Artaxerxes (Ezra 7: 1). =Artaxerxes Longimanus.
458 Commission of Ezra.

453 Eliashib, high priest.

444 Nehemiah appointed governor of Judaea.

432 Nehemiah's second mission to Jerusalem. Prophecy of Malachi.
Plato born, 429.
424 Darius II. =Darius Nothus.
414

Egypt and Media both revolt from Persia.
413 Joiada, high priest.

404


401
Artaxerxes Mnemon. Battle of Cunaxa. Demosthenes born, 382.
373 Johanan, high priest

359

Philip, king of Macedon.
358
Darius Ochus Plato dies, 348.
341 Jaddua, high priest.

337
Arses.
336 Darius III (Neh. 12: 22). =Darius Codomannus Philip of Macedon slain.
332 Jaddua goes out to meet Alexander.
Alexander in Syria and Egypt.
331

Battle of Arbela.
330
Darius slain. End of the Persian power.
323
Ptolemy Lagides obtains Egypt. Death of Alexander the Great and dismemberment of his empire.

JEWISH HISTORYEGYPTSYRIA
321 Onias I, high priest.

320 Ptolemy (Lagides) Soter takes Jerusalem.

314 Antigonus conquers Palestine form Ptolemy.

312

Seleucus (Nicator).
311 Palestine by treaty assigned to Antiogonus.

302 Palestine retaken by Ptolemy. N.B. During this distrubed period many Jews migrated from Palestine and settled in Egypt and in parts of Asia Minor; they were held in much esteem by the rulers of those countries in which they settled.
301 Battle of Ipsus. Antigonus defeated by Seleucus.
300 Simon the Just, high priest.
292 Eleazar, high priest.
284
Ptolemy Philadelphus.
280
N.B. About this time the Septuagint version of the Hebrew scriptures appears to have been commenced in Alexandria, though it was not finished for more than a century after. Antiochus (Soter).
277 Manasseh, high priest.
260
Antiochus (Theos).
250 Onias II, high priest.
246
Ptolemy Euergetes.
245

Seleucus Callinicus.
225 Tribute due to Egypt not paid by Onias.
Seleucus Keraunus.
223

Antiochus the Great.
221
Ptolemy Philopator.
217 Simon II, high priest. Ptolemy's outrage in the Jewish temple.
216 Battle of Raphia. Treaty between Antiochus and Ptolemy.
204
Ptolemy Epiphanes.
195 Onias III, high priest.

187

Seleucus Philopator.
180
Ptolemy Philometor.
176 Heliodorus sent to plunder the temple.

175 Onias deposed by Antiochus. Jason, high priest.
Antiochus Epiphanes.
173
Cleopatra, guardian of Philometor, dies.
172 Menelaus, Jason's brother, nominated high priest.

172 Onias III murdered about this time.

170

Antiochus defeats the Egyptians.
169 Jason seizes Jerusalem, which Antiochus attacks on his return from Egypt and pollutes the temple.
Second invasion of Egypt.
168 Daily sacrifice interrupted. Ptolemy Physcon set up for a time in Egypt, but soon makes common cause with his brother Philometor. Third attack on Egypt.
167 Mattathias the Maccabee revolts.

166 Battle of Emmaus. Victory of Judas Maccabaeus.

165 Dedication of the temple.

164

Antiochus Eupator.
163 Lysias defeated by Judas at Bethsura. Alcimus, high priest. Menelaus put to death.

162

Demetrius Soter.
161 Nicanor defeated at Capharsalama. Death of Judas Maccabaeus at Eleasa. Contests between Philmetor and Physcon. Appeals to Rome.
160 Decree of the Roman Senate in favor of the Jews.

159 Death of Alcimus.

156 Jonathan, brother of Judas, ruler of Judaea.

153 Jonathan made high priest by Balas.
Alexander Balas set up against Demetrius.
150 Jonathan honored by Philometor and Balas.
Alexander Balas, king of Syria.
149
Onias, son of Onias III, made commander-in-chief in Egypt.
146
Ptolemy Philometor opposes Alexander Balas.
145
Ptolemy Physcon (Euergetess II). Demetrius Nicator.
143 Jonathan put to death by Tryphon. Simon, high priest.

142 Simon, 'Prince of the Jews.' Jews allowed to coin money.

139

Antiochus Sidetes. Tryphon put to death.
135 Murder of Simon. John Hyrcanus, high priest.

130

Demetrius Nicator.
126

Zebina.
123

Antiochus Grypus.
116
Ptolemy Lathyrus (Soter II).
109 Hyrcanus wars on Samaria and destroys the temple on Gerizim. Cleopatra and Alexander.
106 Hyrcanus dies. Aristobulus (his son), first king of the Jews.

105 Alexander Jannaeus made king of the Jews.

96 Jannaeus captures Gaza. Ptolemy, king of Cyrene, bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans. Seleucus succeeds his father Grypus.
94 The Pharisees hostile to Jannaeus.

93 War of Jannaeus in Gilead and Moab.

92

Philip, brother of Sel- eucus, gains the throne.
88 Jannaeus defeated at Shechem.

87
Ptolemy Lathyrus recalled.
83

Tigranes, king of Arm- enia, set over Syria.
80
Ptolemy Alexander.
78 Death of Jannaeus, Alexandra, his widow, rules after him. Hyrcanus II, high priest.

69 Aristobulus II seizes the government.

66

Pompey conquers Syria for the Romans.



ROMAN AFFAIRS
65
Ptolemy Auletes.
64 Disputes between Aristobulus and Hyrcanus.

63 Jerusalem taken by Pompey. Hyrcanus again high priest.

54 Palestine divided into five districts.
Crassus defeated by the Parthians at Carrhae, 53.
51 Crassus plunders the temple. Cleopatra.
48 Antipater made procurator of Judaea.
Battle of Pharsalia. Battle of Thapsus, 46.
44 Hyrcanus, 'Prince of the Jews.'
Assassination of Caesar.
42

Battle of Philippi.
41 Herod and Phasael, joint tetrarchs of Judaea.

40 Herod flees to Rome. Antigonus set up in his stead.

38 Herod marries Mariamne.

37 Herod takes Jerusalem.

31

Battle of Actium. August, emperor, 31 B.C.-A.D. 14.
30
Cleopatra dies. Egypt becomes a Roman province.
29 Mariamne put to death.

25 Herod rebuilds Samaria.

17 Herod restores the temple.

6 Alexander and Aristobulus put to death.


NEW TESTAMENT CHRONOLOGY
A.D.CHRISTIAN HISTORYJEWISH HISTORYCONTEMPORARY EVENTS

Birth of Jesus Christ. Death of Herod the Great. Archelaus obtains Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea; Herod Antipas, Galilee; Herod Philip, Ituraea, Trachonitis, etc.

Banishment of Archelaus.

COPONIUS procurator of Judea; Ananus high priest.
Jesus at Jerusalem in the temple Cyrenius completes the taxing.

MARCUS AMBIVIUS, procurator.

ANNIUS RUFUS, procurator.


Death of Augustus.

VALERIUS GRATUS, procurator.

Caiaphas, high priest.
Beginning of the ministry of the Baptist. PONTIUS PILATE, procurator.
The Crucifixion.

33
Death of Herod Philip.
35 Conversion of Paul. Pontious Pilate exiled.
37
Jonathan, high priest. Herod Agrippa obtains the tetrarchy of Herod Philip. MARCELLUS, procurator. Death of Tiberius.
38
Josephus born.
39 The churches have rest. Antipas deposed. Agrippa made tetrarch of Galilee.
41
Agrippa receives Judaea. Death of Caligula.
44 Death of James the brother of John. Death of Herod Agrippa I. CUSPIUS FADUS, procurator.
45 Paul's first missionary tour.

46
TIBERIUS ALEXANDER, procurator.
48
VENTIDIUS CUMANUS, procurator.
49 Council of Jerusalem.

50 1 and 2 Thessalonians written.
Jews banished from Rome by Claudius.
51
CLAUDIUS [or ANTONIUS] FELIX, procurator.
54

Death of Claudius.
55 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Romans.

57 Paul a prisoner at Caesarea.

58 Paul sent to Rome. PORCIUS FESTUS, procurator.
59 Paul leaves Melita for Rome. Joseph, son of Simon, high priest.
60 Philippians, Colossians, Ephesians, Philemon. ALBINUS, procurator.
61 Close of the history of the Acts of the Apostles.

62
GESSIUS FLORUS, procurator. Completion of the temple. Burning of Rome. Persecution under Nero.
64 Titus, 1 and 2 Timothy. Jewish war commences.
65 Martyrdom of Peter and Paul. Capture of Jotapata by Vespasian.
68

Death of Nero. Galba proclaimed.
69

Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, emperors.
70 Christians retire to Pella. Siege and capture of Jerusalem.
79

Death of Vespasian.
81

Death of Titus.
95 Persecution of Christians by Domitian.

96

Death of Domitian.